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What is the La Niña phenomenon and what effects does it have on the climate?

In countries like Colombia, the La Niña phenomenon begins in the middle of the year and ends in the middle of the following year. However, this cold phase of the climate has changed its appearance in recent years due to climate change.

In Spain, for example, this phenomenon begins in August, during the northern summer, reaches its peak at the end of the year and disappears in the second half of the following year.

the girl phenomenon

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What is the La Niña phenomenon or cold phase?

He La Niña phenomenonformerly known as Anti-El Niño either “The old« is a phase of the global climate cycle in which there is a drop in temperature. Likewise, it is determined by the intensity of the trade winds: if they are strong, La Niña begins.

What causes the La Niña phenomenon? This is caused by cooling of surface water in the equatorial Pacific and changes in tropical atmospheric circulation, which affect temperatures and precipitation in various parts of the world, including South America. This phenomenon leads to above-average rainfall in Southeast Asia.

On the other hand, this phenomenon has a long history and was first recorded in 1892-1893. In 2022, La Niña gave way to El Niño after three consecutive years, resulting in record global temperatures. In 2023, it was the warmest year on record in 172 years.

See more: From blue to green: The ocean is changing color due to the effects of climate change

How does the La Niña phenomenon affect the climate?

The girl phenomenon affects the weather in the following ways:

  • Cold and persistent temperatures
  • Increase in trade winds
  • Torrential rains

In addition, Central America experiences wetter than normal conditions during the La Niña phenomenon, particularly in the coastal areas of the Caribbean Sea, while drier and cooler conditions occur in South America, particularly in Ecuador, Peru and central Chile, and wetter in Guyana and the Northeast Brazil.

La Niña is associated with milder or wetter rainy seasons and the occurrence of extreme weather events. in countries like Nicaragua, leading to hurricanes, floods and economic damage. In Bolivia and Colombia, this phenomenon causes an increase in rainfall in the central Andes, causing catastrophic flooding in the Llanos de Mojos in the Beni Department of Bolivia. La Niña is divided into four phases and can last between 9 months and 3 years and can be classified as weak, moderate and strong.

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