Tomato diseases and solutions to fight them

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Tomate
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Tomato is one of the most cultivated plants in orchards around the world for its nutritional properties and excellent taste. Coming from America, today there are hundreds of varieties with different sizes, shapes and colors, but none of them is disease-free.

The tomato, whose scientific name is Solanum lycopersicumbelongs to the Solanaceae family and is one of the most appreciated vegetables in the world.

It is a plant capable of adapting to all types of soils, although its cultivation is recommended in nutrient-rich and well-fertilized lands.

Tomato plant maintenance

Its form of growth is thick and with long stems, which, due to the weight of the fruits, makes it convenient to guide them with structures such as sticks.

As the plant grows, small pruning and thinning are carried out. This will facilitate ventilation and access to sunlight for the ripening of the fruits, also preventing the appearance of some fungal diseases.

Regarding irrigation, it is better to carry out deep and spaced irrigations, without wetting the foliage and fruits.

To keep the plant healthy and obtain good fruiting, it is also appropriate to make fertilizers during the different growing seasons.

The main diseases of tomato

The three main diseases that affect tomato plants are the fungi called mildew, powdery mildew and rust. These appear in conditions of high humidity and temperature, lack of ventilation and due to the sensitivity of the growing variety itself.

It is possible to prevent and treat these diseases with various ecological methods, without harming the environment or compromising our health.

On a large scale, organic agriculture uses copper or sulfur based fungicides, but on a smaller scale it is possible to prepare homemade fungicides for tomatoes.

Mold

It is a fungus that affects the leaves causing spots in different shades of green, until they become completely dark. Finally, the leaves die.

powdery mildew

It is another fungus that manifests itself as whitish, powdery spots on the upper surface of the leaf. It then causes yellowish spots until the leaf dries completely.

Rust

This fungal disease appears as orange pustules on the underside of the leaf, revealing corresponding yellow spots on top.

A new alternative for the tomato industry

systems ozone in agriculture They offer great benefits because they also improve yields, prevent and treat diseases, and promote rooting.

Ozone is a product of nature itself, therefore, applied correctly, it does not pollute. It is composed of three oxygen atoms and behaves like a natural disinfectant.

When it already works, the ozone decomposes into oxygen and does not leave any kind of chemical residue harmful to the environment.

Most plant diseases are caused by contagion, but ozone can destroy microorganisms both by its direct action on water and by the amount of oxygen it releases.

Ozone is useful for removing viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, spores and any other microorganisms from the soil and roots.

Several studies have shown that ozone is an effective alternative to prevent and control root and stem diseases, such as Phytophthora, fusarium, patioRhizoctonia and airborne diseases such as Mycosphaerella, botrytissclerotinia, Moldalternate, powdery mildew.

In practice, ozone for agronomic use is applied with irrigation water and can also be used for foliar treatments.

Therefore, treatments with ozone guarantee a better root system of plants, a better transplant and less aggression by phytosanitary products.

Homemade and ecological methods to treat tomato diseases

Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate It is a soluble, white, readily available compound that is often used to fight fungal diseases in many plants and is also useful in tomatoes.

I can make a homemade fungicide with just baking soda mixing 4 teaspoons of baking soda, 1 teaspoon of horticultural oil and citrus oil or molasses, in approximately 4 L of water.

It is mixed well and applied with a spray to the parts with symptoms of fungal diseases. This will prevent more fungus from developing.

white vinegar

the vinegar It is also a common element that has antifungal properties.

To prepare it, we must dilute approximately 3 or 4 tablespoons of white vinegar in 4 L of water. Tomato plants are sprayed daily with this dilution until the fungus disappears.

As a precaution, the application should be done at dusk, when the plant no longer receives the sun’s rays.

White vinegar is the most effective in treating plant fungus, you can also use apple cider vinegar.

Lower leg

This spice, which we can also find in any home, can be sprinkled to treat fungal diseases in tomatoes. If the fungi do not disappear within the next 72 hours, the application is repeated.

Garlic

It is possible to prepare a fermented garlic and take advantage of its excellent antifungal qualities.

With a mortar, crush all the cloves of a head of garlic and leave to macerate for 24 hours in 1 liter of water.

After this time, let it boil for 5 minutes, let it cool and strain. We fill a sprayer and apply it early in the morning or at sunset.

Ponytail

This easy-to-grow grass in wet areas contains silicon. This element is able to regenerate plant tissues and also acts as a powerful fungicide.

It is usually used as a curative or preventive mode. A slurry is made by mixing about 100 grams of horsetail with 1 liter of rainwater in a plastic drum.

We will remove for 5 or 10 minutes once a day for a period of between 15 and 20 days. After this time, we will cover the drum allowing air to enter. Let’s leave the drum in a cool area.

The fermented product will be ready 15 days after the bubbles in the fermented product have subsided. We filter and pack.

This is the best time to use it as a remedy and preventative for tomato diseases.

Horsetail paste is applied to both the soil and the rest of the plant. But when spraying it on the leaves and stem, it is better to dilute this liquid in the proportion of 1 liter of slurry per 15 liters of water.

Do not use any iron element so as not to alter the preparation.

Essencial oils

There are several types of essential oils with antifungal properties which are effective when applied to plants such as tomatoes, both to prevent and to treat fungal problems. Among these oils are:

  • citrus oil.
  • Oregano Oil.
  • Orange oil.
  • Garlic oil.
  • Tea tree oil.

To make fungicides based on these essential oils, we can add a few drops with any of the mentioned homemade fungicides.

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