The EU agrees on the world’s first law on artificial intelligence

“The European Union law on artificial intelligence (AI) is Pioneer of the world. “A unified legal framework for the development of artificial intelligence that can be trusted,” said the President of the European Commission. Ursula von der Leyenin a message he published this Friday on the social network X (formerly Twitter).

The agreement was reached after 36 hours of negotiations and still needs to be ratified by the European Parliament and the Council of the EU, the body that represents European governments.

Real-time monitoring

One of the most sensitive points of the negotiations was the use of biometric identification cameras for law enforcement in public spaces to ensure national security.

The cameras may be used, with prior court approval, to deter a “real and foreseeable” or “real and present” terrorist threat, i.e. one that is occurring at that moment.

Identification cameras can be used, with prior court approval, to deter a “real and foreseeable” or “real and present” terrorist threat.

They can also be used to locate or identify a person who has committed crimes Terrorism, human trafficking, sexual exploitation or, for example, an environmental crime and the search for the victims of these crimes.

During negotiations, governments have pushed to expand the list of crimes, while the European Parliament has sought to limit them as much as possible and obtain strict guarantees for fundamental rights.

Forbidden systems

The rule also prohibits any biometric categorization systems based on political, religious or philosophical beliefs, or on race and sexual orientation.

Systems that evaluate people based on their behavior or personal characteristics, or artificial intelligence that is able to manipulate human behavior, are also not used.

Bans all biometric categorization systems based on political, religious, philosophical beliefs, or race and sexual orientation.

Systems to expand or create Facial databases indiscriminate data collection via the Internet or audiovisual recordings

In addition, artificial intelligence systems that can recognize emotions will also be banned in workplaces or schools.

Generative AI

The other big issue that the negotiations are focusing on is the regulation of generative artificial intelligence systems on which models like ChatGPT are based., from the company OpenAI or Bard, from Google.

ChatGPT and others must meet transparency criteria, e.g. For example, indicate whether a text, song or photo was generated by AI and ensure that the data used respects copyright

They must meet transparency criteria, e.g. For example, indicate whether a text, song or photo was generated by AI and ensure that the data used to train the systems respects copyright.

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Initially, the law was not intended to regulate these types of systems as they had not yet become popular when Brussels proposed the law in April 2021. But since the ChatGPT outbreak last year, community institutions have recognized the need to legislate it.

The regulation does not prohibit their use, but establishes a series of criteria to detect models that may pose a high risk depending on the context in which they are used, and requires their developers to comply with certain rules. stricter protective measures before you put them on the market.

“Passionate” negotiations

The negotiations were “passionate” since the aim of the law is to regulate the use of a technology with great opportunities for society, which at the same time raises doubts and some questions to which the developers of artificial intelligence do not yet know the answer, sources said , who are familiar with the debates.

The regulation allows or prohibits the use of artificial intelligence depending on the risk it poses to people and identifies high-risk systems that can only be used if it is demonstrated that they respect fundamental rights.

For example, those that can influence the outcome of an election, those that are used by financial institutions to assess solvency and determine creditworthiness.

With the adoption of this globally groundbreaking standard, the Spanish EU Council Presidency has achieved one of its main goals this semester.

“We have reached an important milestone that citizens can decide what can and cannot be done with artificial intelligence,” said the Spanish Secretary of State for Telecommunications and Digital Infrastructure. Carmen Artigas.

The regulation provides for the creation of the European Artificial Intelligence Bureau, which will coordinate the use of technology between national authorities.

The regulation provides for the creation of the European Artificial Intelligence Bureau, which will coordinate the use of technology between national authorities and be advised by a panel of scientists and civil society organizations.

Entry into force in 2026

The law is due to come into force in 2026 are applied in phases: The European office will be established immediately, the ban on banned artificial intelligence systems will be six months, and the requirements for generative AI systems and models will reach twelve months.

The regulation provides Fines The range is from 35 million euros ($37.6 million), or 7% of the companies’ global business volume, to 7.5 million euros ($8 million), or 1.5% of the global business volume.

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