Mikhail Gorbachev, the last president of the Soviet Union, has died.

Mikhail Gorbachev, the last president of the Soviet Union, died on Tuesday at the age of 91. This was reported from the Central Clinical Hospital of Russia. The last president of the USSR, who suffered from kidney problems and was hospitalized yesterday after hemodialysis, will be buried in the Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow, in a tomb next to the remains of his wife Raisa, according to the TASS agency.

Gorbachev was one of the most prominent figures in 20th-century politics. He led the Soviet Union during its last seven years of existence as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985-1991), the sixth in the history of the State, and as President of the USSR (1990-1991). , the first and the last in the history of the country.

The president who wanted to reform the USSR and ended up ‘illuminating’ his end has legions of supporters and detractors. The former consider him a legendary reformer who brought freedom and democracy to a hermetic country and who created the concepts of ‘glasnost’ (transparency and freedom of expression) and ‘perestroika’ (reconstruction, reform). For the latter, he is simply responsible for the end of a superpower.

Gorbachev’s ascent as the highest authority of the USSR began in 1971, when he entered the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. At that time he was the highest official in power in the Stavropol region, where he began to make public policy decisions on agricultural matters, which took him to Moscow in 1978 to take charge of that economic sector at the national level. Two years later, Gorbachev was elected to the Politburo, the highest body of executive power in the USSR.

Gorbachev was a member of the Politburo for five years until in March 1985 he was elected general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Shortly after coming to power, he coined the policy that would make him known globally and that would mark the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union: the “perestroika”, a turnaround, a “reconstruction” of the political and economic organization of the USSR, which enabled the return of private initiative.

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“Perestroika” was accompanied by “glasnost”, which sought to propose policies of transparency and freedom of expression and limited the intervention of the Communist Party in the media and artistic production. Political prisoners were also released and protest demonstrations in the streets were authorized. In 1988, the Soviet Union ended the blocking of programs from Western radio stations.

Gorbachev also introduced free elections in which several candidates could participate, unlike the traditional Soviet version, in which there was only one candidate on the list. Between May 25 and June 9, 1989, the first Congress of People’s Deputies of the USSR was held in Moscow, the new supreme legislative body of the country resulting from the first free elections in the nation.

In March 1990, the Congress of People’s Deputies approved amendments to the State Constitution that changed the country’s political system. March 15th the position of president was introduced to replace the highest authority that rested with the general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. In the first elections, the voters were only the members of Congress and Gorbachev He was the first and only president of the USSR.

On December 25, 1991, in a televised speech lasting one minute and 12 seconds, Mikhail Gorbachev lowered the final curtain on the Soviet Union’s 74 years, when he announced his resignation as president of the 15-nation bloc, which disintegrated behind him. It was the confirmation of the mandate of the Treaty of Belavesha, signed 17 days before, by the presidents of a handful of those republics, who had actually written in a diplomatic and legal tone what they all demanded, at least since the fall of the Berlin Wall, two years before.

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